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Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Caller ID Screening And Callback

As a CCNA and/or CCNP candidate, you've got to be able to spot situations where Cisco router features can save your client money and time. For example, if a spoke router is calling a hub router and the toll charges at the spoke site are higher than that of the hub router, having the hub router hang up initially and then call the spoke router back can save the client money (and make you look good!)

A popular method of doing this is using PPP callback, but as we all know, it's a good idea to know more than one way to do things in Cisco World! A lesser-known but still effective method of callback is Caller ID Screening & Callback. Before we look at the callback feature, though, we need to know what Caller ID Screening is in the first place!

This feature is often referred to simply as "Caller ID", which can be a little misleading if you've never seen this service in operation before. To most of us, Caller ID is a phone service that displays the source phone number of an incoming call. Caller ID Screening has a different meaning, though. Caller ID Screening on a Cisco router is really another kind of password - it defines the phone numbers that are allowed to call the router.

The list of acceptable source phone numbers is created with the isdn caller command. Luckily for us, this command allows the use of x to specify a wildcard number. The command isdn caller 555xxxx results in calls being accepted from any 7-digit phone number beginning with 555, and rejected in all other cases. We'll configure R2 to do just that and then send a ping from R1 to R2. To see the results of the Caller ID Screening, debug dialer will be run on R1 before sending the ping. I’ve edited this output, since the output you see here will be repeated fire times – once for each ping packet.

R2(config-if)#isdn caller 555xxxx

R1#debug dialer

Dial on demand events debugging is on


Type escape sequence to abort.

Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to, timeout is 2 seconds:

03:30:25: BR0 DDR: Dialing cause ip (s=, d=

03:30:25: BR0 DDR: Attempting to dial 8358662.

Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)

R1 doesn't give us any hints as to what the problem is, but we can see that the pings definitely aren't going through. On R2, show dialer displays the number of screened calls.

R2#show dialer

BRI0 - dialer type = ISDN

Dial String Successes Failures Last DNIS Last status

8358661 1 0 00:03:16 successful

7 incoming call(s) have been screened.

0 incoming call(s) rejected for callback.

The callback option mentioned in the last line shown above enables the router to reject a phone call, and then call that router back seconds later.

R2 will now be configured to initially hang up on R1, and then call R1 back.

R2(config-if)#isdn caller 8358661 callback

R1 will now ping R2. The pings aren't returned, but seconds later R2 calls R1 back.


Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)


03:48:12: BRI0: wait for isdn carrier timeout, call id=0x8023


03:48:18: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface BRI0:1, changed state to up


03:48:18: BR0:1 DDR: dialer protocol up


03:48:19: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface BRI0:1, changed state to up


03:48:24: %ISDN-6-CONNECT: Interface BRI0:1 is now connected to 8358662 R2

show dialer on R2 shows the reason for the call to R1 is a callback return call.

R2#show dialer

BRI0 - dialer type = ISDN

Dial String Successes Failures Last DNIS Last status

8358661 3 0 00:00:48 successful

7 incoming call(s) have been screened.

10 incoming call(s) rejected for callback.

BRI0:1 - dialer type = ISDN

Idle timer (120 secs), Fast idle timer (20 secs)

Wait for carrier (30 secs), Re-enable (15 secs)

Dialer state is data link layer up

Dial reason: Callback return call

Time until disconnect 71 secs

Connected to 8358661 (R1)

The drawback to Caller ID Callback is that not all telco switches support it, so if you have the choice between this and PPP Callback, you're probably better off with PPP Callback. However, it's always a good idea to know more than one way to get things done with Cisco!

Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification Exam: Cabling Your Home Lab

More CCNA and CCNP candidates than ever before are putting together their own home labs, and there's no better way to learn about Cisco technologies than working with the real thing. Getting the routers and switches is just part of putting together a great CCNA / CCNP home lab, though. You've got to get the right cables to connect the devices, and this is an important part of your education as well. After all, without the right cables, client networks are going to have a hard time working!

For your Cisco home lab, one important cable is the DTE/DCE cable. These cables have two major uses in a home lab. To practice directly connecting Cisco routers via Serial interfaces (an important CCNA skill), you'll need to connect them with a DTE/DCE cable. Second, if you plan on having a Cisco router act as a frame relay switch in your lab, you'll need multiple DTE/DCE cables to do so. (Visit my website's Home Lab Help section for a sample Frame Relay switch configuration.)

If you have multiple switches in your lab, that's great, because you'll be able to get a lot of spanning tree protocol (STP) work in as well as creating Etherchannels. To connect your switches, you'll need crossover cables.

You'll need some straight-through cables as well to connect your routers to the switches.

Finally, if you're lucky enough to have an access server as part of your lab, you'll need an octal cable to connect your AS to the other routers and switches in your lab. The octal cable has one large connector on one end and eight numbered RJ-45 connectors on the other end. The large connector should be attached to the async port on your AS, and the numbered RJ-45 connectors will be connected to the console ports on your other routers and switches.

Choosing and connecting the right cables for your Cisco CCNA / CCNP home lab is a great learning experience, and it's also an important part of your Cisco education. After all, all great networks and home labs all begin at Layer One of the OSI model!

Cisco / MCSE Exam Study: Creating A Road Map To Success

Planning for success on the CCNA, CCNP, and other Cisco exams is much like taking a trip in your car. You've got to plan ahead, accept the occasional detour, and just keep on going until you get there. But what do you do before you get started?

Create a road map - for success.

If you were driving from one side of the country to another, you certainly wouldn't just get in your car and start driving, would you? No. You would plan the trip out ahead of time. What would happen if you just got in the car and started driving in the hope that you would someday arrive at your final destination? You would never get there, and you'd spend a lot of time wandering aimlessly.

Don't spend your study time and slow your progress by studying for a Cisco exam without planning the trip. Schedule your study time as you would an appointment with a client, and keep that appointment. Make sure that your study time is quality study - turn your TV, iPod, and cell off. If you hit a bump in the road and don't get your certification the first time you take the exam, regroup and create another plan. Study until you get to the point that on exam day, you know that you are already a CCNA or CCNP and you’re just there at the testing center to make it official.

The journey to success is not a straight line. When you look at a chart that shows a company's financial progress, the line never goes straight up. there are some ups and downs, but the overall result is success. The path to your eventual career and certification exam success may not be a direct one, but the important part is to get started - and to get any journey started, you've got to create a road map for a successful arrival at your destination.

Boost Your Career And Benefit From A Microsoft Certification Or Two Or Three!

You went to college and thought you were prepared for the job market. If you are going for entry-level work, yeah, you are prepared. However, to really get ahead, you need Microsoft certification, whether it is an MCP, MCSA, MCSE or any other string of letters. Quite a few people will go for multiple certifications to broaden their experience and scope of possible job opportunities.

Some of the Microsoft certifications require you have to have at least one year of practical experience in order to pursue a certification, namely an MCSE or Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer. It is important to have that experience that these certain certifications require because the training, like the MCSE training and the MCSE exams that follow, are very intense. In fact, some people will not only partake of the standard MCSE training, but also MCSE boot camps for more in-depth studies into their certification.

One standard benefit to having a Microsoft certification is that it is a great basic means of analyzing the aptitude of an employee. If you are a manager or owner in a business, you want some way to evaluate that employee’s skills. And if you are the employee, you know that your boss recognizes your abilities.

If you are on the hunt for a new job, then potential hiring managers and employers have a basis in which to assess your qualifications. Without that Microsoft certification on your resume, these employers would have no idea about your skills and most likely would consider someone else, someone with a certification, for the position you were aiming for.

If you do not have much hands-on experience in your field, but you do have the Microsoft certification to prove that you know the material, you would also have a leg up on anyone else applying for the same position that may have more hands-on experience, but no certification. For some reason, that certification, those little string of letters like MCP or MCSE, hold a lot of power.

Yet another benefit to holding a Microsoft certification or two is the money aspect of it all. Sure, you shelled out some major bucks to fund your education in those MCP courses or that MCSE training, but consider it an investment in yourself. With certification, you can bargain a higher salary and even reimbursement for your training!

Many professionals in the IT field or in a company in which you work in an IT department could benefit from Microsoft certification. Do you work as an Administrator for a network, mail or web server? Are you involved in the security of networks and the internet? Any of those positions and much more benefit with additional training and certification. Just think money! It is the biggest motivator. The more you know and can bring to a position, the more money you stand to make.

So think about going for your MCSE or MCP certification or any number of others available. More training; more knowledge; more money ... sounds like a no-brainer! Go nuts and get certified today!

Blogging: Let's Brainstorm for Content

Blogging: Let's Get You Started" we ended with the subject of content. Fresh topics are important to keep your blog readership interested, and now we're going to discuss just how you can do that.

What are you going to write about? It should be a topic that you're passionate about or are at the very least interested in. If you've chosen blogging as your new career, then you don't want to torture yourself by writing about something that you have zero interest in, otherwise you might as well return to that mundane job you just quit!

Feelings and emotions show through your writing, so your readers will notice any indifference you may have toward a certain topic that you find boring. Don't forget the advice about writing with a personality. Forced writing will not establish you in the world of blogging at all.

Once you've chosen your main theme -- or if it has chosen you, then that's even better -- start posting to your blog and try to get into the habit of doing that at least once every day. It doesn't always need to be a long post; it could be a comment on something you read in the newspaper today or a segment that you saw on the breakfast news program on TV. Think of yourself as a gigantic container ship, that needs a lot of effort to get moving. At first, you'll budge just a foot or two and later you'll trudge slowly on until you're at full speed. Before you know it, it'll take a lot of effort to stop you!

Nevertheless, regardless of how well you know your topic, you're going to run out of fresh input at some point, so let's look at some content brainstorm ideas.

1) Check out what other bloggers have to say on the current state of affairs in your field of discussion. You can find related blogs by visiting http://blogsearch.google.com/ or http://www.technorati.com. You'll learn from other blogs and you can also comment on what others have to say on your own blog!

2) Once you’ve established contact with other bloggers, you’ll have almost inexhaustible input to keep you going for a while, so there won't be an acute need to search for content to write about. Should you still be stuck, then you can search for news articles related to your niche in you local newspaper or online.

3) By joining a few forums related to your niche -- just choose the ones that are the most focused on your particular area -- you can engage in conversations with others who share your interests. This is a great way to build up a Q&A bank and interesting discussion topics to write about. An added bonus is that your forum posts will quite handily generate traffic for your blog and, hopefully, profits.

Try to maintain your daily posting habit. The major search engines love fresh content and they are more likely to spider your blog frequently, which will also result in getting you extra traffic.

The subject of traffic will be discussed in a future article, so don't worry about that right now. Just keep writing and posting and building up that momentum -- you'll be an established blogger before you know it!

Como jugar al Backgammon

El juego de mesa backgammon es uno de los juegos mas antiguos del hombre. Se dice que las primeras variaciones del juego comenzaron en el antiguo Egipto, Area Mesopotámica y Antigua Roma. Desde entonces, el juego ha evolucionado, cambiado de nombre varias veces y dispersado a diferentes partes del mundo. Actualmente es un pasatiempo original alrededor de los Estados Unidos, Asia del Este, Europa y Medio Oriente.

Para comenzar a jugar necesitas a un compañero, dos dados y una tabla de backgammon especial. La tabla esta dividida en dos lados con divisiones numeradas de 1 a 24. Puntos 1 a 6 son la llegada, 7 a 12 la salida. 13 a 18 el punto medio.

Al comienzo del juego, cada jugador tiene dos fichas en el punto 24, 3 fichas en el punto 8, 5 en el punto 13 y 5 en el punto 6. Cada jugador tira los dados y el puntaje mas alto comienza la jugada.

El que comienza mueve las fichas de acuerdo a la posición opuesta de las agujas del reloj, desde su punto de partida para llegar al punto de partido del oponente.

El objetivo del backgammon es mover tus fichas hasta llegar al punto de partida de tu adversario y luego removerlas del tablero. La velocidad del progreso del juego es determinada por los resultados de los dados.

Cada jugador tira dos dados en cada turno, y deber una o dos fichas de acuerdo al número que salio en cada dado. Puede mover una ficha sumando el puntaje de los dos dados, o mover dos. Por ejemplo, si el resultado del dado es 5 y 4, puedes mover una ficha 9 lugares o mover una 5 y luego otra 4 para adelante.

Si los dados salen dobles, un numero dos veces, puedes mover las fichas 4 veces en vez de dos. Es decir, si sale un doble 2, moverás 2 lugares cuatro veces. En ese caso puedes o mover una ficha 8 veces, 2 fichas cuatro lugares, 4 fichas dos veces o la combinación que elijas que requiera dos lugares 4 veces.

Puedes mover una ficha a un casillero que hay solo una de tu oponente, y así la "comes". Luego, esta ficha es ubicada en la mitad del tablero, llamada el bar.

Tu oponente puede volver a jugar una vez que puedo ubicar a la ficha en algún casillero de su llegada que no este ocupado por mas de una ficha tuya. Por ejemplo, si tira los dados y sale 2 y en ese casillero no hay ninguna ficha o solo una tuya, el puede entrar y seguir sus jugadas. De lo contrario, deberá esperar a su turno y volver a intentarlo.

Una vez ubicadas todas tus fichas en el casillero de llegada de tu oponente, deberás comenzar a removerlas del tablero. Es decir, si tiras los dados y sale 1 y 2 puedes mover una ficha del casillero 1, si sale 2, puedes mover una ficha del casillero 2 y así sucesivamente.

Si tu oponente no ha removido ninguna ficha mientras que tu has removido 15, tu ganas el juego y viceversa. Lo mismo ocurre si tu has removido 15 fichas y el tiene algunas en el medio comidas, (sin aun haber removido ninguna) tu ganas el juego.

El juego es muy entretenido e inteligente que te puede acompañar en muchas ocasiones. Disfrútalo!